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We have summarized simple questions and questions that we are often asked, soI would appreciate it if you could take a look at it when you have time.

Also, if you have any additional questions or additions, please feel free to contact me.




What is B/L

BL flow


Type of B/L

Types of  BL

What is L/C transaction?

What is LC


2. About forwarder business

What is NVOCC


Forwarder/broker/customs broker

The difference between eachForwarder duties

About forwarder business


3. Concerning containers

Size/load capacity/weight of the container itself, etc.

container size

Notes on container Vanning/Devanning

Vanning and devanning


4. Sea freight and surcharges

Fares and additional charges


5. Japanese ports

Port situation in Japan

BL flow

BL is an abbreviation for Bill of Lading.

Receipt of laden cargo to transport the cargo to the designated place and there to the rightful holder of this billIt is a document confirming that the package will be handed over in exchange for this.


Export procedures in trade often involve complicated flows of documents and information.Various trade parties are involved. Therefore, we decided to issue BL as well as customs clearance and shipping operations.In most cases, we ask the forwarder to take over the related work.


〇Exporter (trading company, trading company, etc.)

〇Forwarder (also known as Otsunaka in Japan)
〇 Shipping company

The business flow of the three companies is as follows.


Exporter submits invoice and S/I (Shipping Instruction) to forwarderSubmit the information necessary for forwarder BL issuance to the shipping company

(Note) It is called Dock Receipt for container ships and Mate Receipt for conventional ships.

Issuing BL by shipping company (after collecting freight and issuing fee)


(Note) Recently, paper documents are no longer used, and the system is exclusively for trade.Using NACCS, more and more events are being held online.


The format of the items to be written on the BL may differ depending on the shipping company, but generally the following items are included.Become.


1. Shipping company name
2. Bill of lading number (B/L No.)
3. Shipper
4. Consignee
5. Notify Party
6. Place of receipt
7. Vessel name (Ocean Vessel)
8. Port of Loading
9. Port of Discharge
10. Place of Delivery

11. Description of Goods
12. Number of B/L issued
13.Place and Date of B/L issue
14.Signature of carrier
15.Laden on Board the Vessel


Note) Freight is divided into the loading side (Prepaid) and the discharging side (Collect).Check and add.

In addition, if you want to hide the freight from the shipping company, please contact the shipping company with 'Freight As Arranged'.It is possible to omit the fare details, assuming that the fare is as agreed upon.

BL type

The following three types of B/L are mainly used.


1.Original B/L

3 copies will be issued. (Original, Duplicate, Triplicate)

I will send the original to the local importer. The importer should send the original to the shipping company.Pay various expenses, have D/O (Delivery Order) issued, and receive the package.


2. Surrendered B/L

The exporter pays the freight, etc. to the shipping company, and gets a mark of 'Surrendered' by saying that it is recovering the original land.I will send a copy to the importer.

At the same time, the shipping company also informs the local agency of the import port of 'Surrendered'.

D/O will be issued if the importer presents a copy.


3.Sea Waybill

Unlike the above B/L, it is not a securities. It is not used for transactions using L/C settlement.

If the importer can prove that the owner of the WaybillI can do it.

However, this B/L has a risk of collection of payment (cargo payment received by the exporter, etc.)Usually between companies with long-term relationships and high credibility, or branches of exporters orThere are usually many affiliated companies.

4. B/L terms frequently used by forwarders and NVOCC

It is different from 1 to 3 above, but who is issuing the B/L to whom?It is useful to remember the following three points for reference.


・Ocean B/L B/L issued by shipping company

・Master B/L A B/L issued by a shipping company to a forwarder or NVOCC

・House B/L B/L issued by forwarder or NVOCC to shipper

What is LC

L/C is a term frequently used in the trading industry.In English, it means Letter of Credit.In Japanese, it means letter of credit.

It is one of the trade settlements, and it is a means by which an importer pays a price to an exporter.

It is used to avoid risks in trade transactions.

When it comes to overseas transactions, it is not easy to pay for goods in advance or afterward.

Moreover, business practices are different, and transportation takes time. in case of prepaymentThe product cannot be obtained reliably, the payment cannot be collected in the case of deferred payment, etc.It comes with risks. L/C settlement is the way to avoid this risk.

In L/C, the importer's bank presents the terms and conditions of the product to the exporter, and the payment is made on behalf of the importer.A letter of guarantee that promises payment.

As a result, the risk described earlier disappears, and product sales transactions go smoothly.

In addition, the L/C contains various conditions for the product, and the B/L is based on these conditions.Accurate description is required. Also, since only the shipping company can correct the B/L side, the shipping companyWe will have the exporter submit the L/G and correct it. Corrections that make settlement more difficult are the responsibility of the exporter.You may also be asked for an L/G issued by your bank.

NVOCC (Non-vessel-operation common carrier)

Non-Vessel Operators, Employed Carriers. Collect cargo from actual consignors,

A company that provides transportation services using the space of a real carrier (shipping company).

As a carrier, issue your own B/L and take responsibility for transportation.

The relationship with the shipping company is that of the shipper, and the relationship with the actual shipper is that of the carrier.

For the shipping company, it becomes the shipper.

For the actual shipper, there is no direct negotiation with the shipping company, and the shipping conditions (from the freight rate to the shipping schedule, etc.)to the NVOCC, they negotiated with many shipping companies as shippers and met the conditionsThey will suggest the best shipping.

This is the biggest advantage of using NVOCC.

Also, the shipping company issues a Master B/L to NVOCC. NVOCC as a shipperWe will issue a House B/L (original one with NVOCC's name on it).

About forwarder business

Forwarder's duties

packing work

Domestic transport (truck/container dray)

Bonded storage/storage

Import/export customs clearance

Acquisition of inspection certificate


Sea and air transportation arrangements (NVOCC)

cargo insurance

Cargo inspection

Other incidental general business


It refers to a company that engages in international freight forwarding business, agency business, and international transportation.

NVOCC is part of its forwarder business.

container size
Container diagram.png
Container size.png

Vanning and devanning

When vanning (packing) and devanning (removal) of containers related to marine container transportationI will write about things to note.


The container will be a temporary loan from the shipping company. specified by the shipper once the export is decidedA trader picks up the container from the shipping company and stuffs it with cargo.

first,Check if there is any problem with the container itself. To deliver the goods to the importing country in good conditionVisually check the inside for dirt, holes, etc.


Considering the shape and weight of the cargo, arrange the cargo so as not to collapse or cause unbalanced load.Disperse and, above all, secure cargo and containers.

Do not lose balance when the container is lifted by a crane or transported, causing the cargo to collapse.In the worst case, the container may overturn and overturn during transportation.Yes, it can lead to serious accidents. In addition, shipping by ship may cause the sea to become rough.If the shaking is severe, the package will collapse and the product itself will be damaged.


Do not stack heavy loads too highWrap with wrap to prevent pallets from slippingPlace cushioning material between palletsUse the ring fit inside the container and fix it with a rope, etc.


Since the container is borrowed from the shipping company, the container mayAny damage will be the responsibility of the vanning company.


For heavy items, install ramps as necessary and load them with a forklift.Take it out. Light pallets, etc. may be handled by hand.

Careful work is required so as not to cause collapse of the cargo when unpacking.

You must also carefully check the goods for damage.

It is also necessary to check the details of the cargo and the contents and number of items.

After unloading all the cargo, do a simple cleaning inside the container and send it to the shipping company.return.

About work

Although vanning and devanning a container may seem like a trivial task,It will be very hard work.

In summer, the temperature inside the container exceeds 50 degrees. Keep the interior dark and well litis needed. Because there are many cases where forklifts and workers are mixedIt is dangerous. Since the work requires multiple people, in order to perform the work efficiently, the procedureA manual will be required.

Fares and additional charges

Below are the main surcharges that occur at the same time as ocean freight.

This fee varies depending on the route, or even on the same route, depending on the shipping company.

Also, the adaptation period may differ depending on the shipping company. This extra chargeThere is, so be careful. (As of Spring 2022)



FAK (Freight ALL Kinds) Fares set in units of volume, weight, etc., regardless of the type of cargo.

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) Added to the fare to compensate for fluctuations in ship fuelsurcharge

CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) A surcharge to adjust the foreign exchange loss (gain) due to exchange rate fluctuations against the fare

YAS (Yen Appreciation Surcharge) A surcharge that compensates for exchange losses due to a sharp appreciation of the yen.

EBS (Emergency Bunker Surcharge) Emergency bunker surcharge due to soaring crude oil prices

LSS (Low Sulfur Fuel Surcharge) High cost instead of C heavy oil, which is the fuel for shipsMandatory use of low-sulfur C heavy oil. the reimbursement cost

CIC (Container Imbalance Charge) Countermeasure cost for container shortage due to imbalance in import/export volume

THC (Terminal Handling Charge) Container movement and cargo handling charge generated within the terminal

WRS (War Risk Surcharge) (For Asia-Middle East)

AMS (Automated Manifest System) Customs system fee for imported cargo operated by US Customs

PSS (Peak Season Surcharge)

DOC (Documentation Charge) Also called B/L issue fee or B/L fee

DOF (Delivery Order Fee) Fee for issuing a delivery order

AFS (Advance Filing Surcharge)  Charging according to the Chinese 24-hour rule

AFA (Advance Filing Amendment Fee) China

CSF (Container Seal Fee) The cost of a seal to lock a container

Japanese port situation

In Japan, as of 2021, there are 7 major ports where foreign trade regular container routes have called.

60 ports including (Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Hakata, Moji).

Except for the eight prefectures that do not face the sea (Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Nagano, Yamanashi, Gifu, Shiga, Nara)All prefectures have ports where ocean-going ships can call.

In 1989, there were only 5 local ports, but the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995The port of Kobe, a major port, was severely damaged, disrupting logistics and causing cargo that had been concentrated at the major ports to be canceled.Local governments have taken the lead in developing ports so that they can be distributed to local ports, and in recent years factories and warehouses have alsoWe are inviting you to the neighborhood.

However, the volume of containers handled in Japan, the world's third largest economy, is completely unmatched by the world's ports.The scale is so small that it does not even reach your feet.

Even the so-called Keihin port (three ports of Tokyo, Yokohama and Kawasaki) handles 7.57 million TEU annually.

43.5 million TEU at one port in Shanghai, China, the world's largest. Seven ports in China ranked among the top 10 in the worldAnd the difference in scale from that in Japan is astonishing.

It is true that port development requires a huge amount of money, including the water depth of the quay, ground preparation, and port equipment.

However, shipping companies are increasing the size of container ships in order to operate them efficiently in recent years.

Globally, ships with 20,000 TEU or more have been built from ships with a loading capacity of 10,000 TEU.

At present, the only port that can be entered by this class of ship is Yokohama Port South Honmoku Wharf in Japan.

Under these circumstances, most of the import and export cargo bound for Japan passes through Busan Port in South Korea and Shanghai Port in China.The number of direct flights is decreasing compared to before.

In addition, even between regional ports, it is recommended that local companies use local ports instead of major ports that have a large number of flights.We are striving to promote the preferential use of the port, and provide incentives to shippers.There is a current situation that they are desperate for the maintenance and development of the port by subsidizing it.

Japan is surrounded by the sea on all sides, and has many earthquakes and typhoons.It's a country. Therefore, it is the era of Reiwa where we can't take our eyes off how to develop and develop ports.

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